Questions 1-11. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. (This passage is from an essay published in the 1980s by a writer who was born in Trinidad, a former British colony.)
Childish memory recreates one of those Trinidad afternoons of burning heat, glare, heat-waves making watery mirages on the asphalt; I seem to remember how the wind stirred the wild grasses growing along the verges. An aircraft was standing on the runway. ‘Look! Look!’ Someone—presumably my brother— was waving a handkerchief at us from a port-hole. I seem to recall too the roar of the engines, the aircraft climbing into a blank, blue sky, becoming smaller as it rose higher, shrinking into an ever-diminishing point of metallic glitter . . . disappearing.
I would have been about five years old at the time—the baby of the family. On that day my brother had disappeared into regions unknown to me; and so became, as I have said, cloaked with an unreality
I found impenetrable. But this unreality, however abstract, however bloodless, was loaded with implication for me. My brother, by reason of his academic successes, had established a pattern, a set of standards. Willy-nilly, these were transformed into a sort of Absolute—small-island, colonial style: willy-nilly, my character, my actual performance, my ‘promise’, would be judged against the expectations generated by that Absolute. He had won an‘Exhibition’ (a type of scholarship) to a good secondary school. Would I? He had won a Trinidad Government scholarship that had taken him to Oxford. Would I? Invariably—how could it be otherwise?—I suffered by comparison. No one ever quite lives up to the demands of an Absolute. You gaze into mirrors—school reports, other faces, overheard opinions—and all you ever see reflected are your own inadequacies; the treasons you are alleged to have inflicted on a self-contained, self-sustaining regime of preconceived and unexamined expectations. I became ‘sensitised’ at an early age to discourtesy and stupidity. Those without imagination are doomed to these twin vices. Looking back on myself, I see that I was a difficult, moody and nigmatic child. It was a form of self-protection against the tyrannies that sought to imprison me, that offered me neither compassion nor courtesy. And—perhaps—the child has developed into a difficult, moody and enigmatic man. He doesn’t like to think he is . . . but he recognizes, glancing into the mirrors that offer themselves, he may be.
Incidents come to mind—some of which still cause me pain. There was that most august relative of mine who (I was probably about ten years old at the time), when I baulked at eating with my hands—I can no longer remember what led up to that petty action of rebellion—remarked: ‘Wait until you get to Oxford. You haven’t got in there yet. Remember that.’ Now, even at so tender an age, could I possibly forget?
1. The atmosphere conveyed by the first paragraph (lines 1-11) can best be described as
(A) resigned yet longing
(B) thoughtful yet dismayed
(C) ephemeral yet intense
(D) sentimental yet confused
(E) chaotic yet disciplined
2. The author uses the phrase “however abstract, however bloodless” in lines 16-17 primarily to emphasize that
(A) he was too young to understand the significance of attending Oxford
(B) he had difficulty in distinguishing between reality and unreality
(C) his brother’s departure seemed innocuous but had serious ramifications
(D) his brother was serenely unaware of things that occurred around him
(E) his brother’s departure made the author feel disconnected from his family
(Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.)
Children are some of the most highly sought consumers in the world; therefore, marketers continue to compete for the money children spend and for the influence they have on their parents’ spending. Some organizations, including child advocacy groups, have expressed concern about the ethics of marketing to children. However, others believe that some types of marketing can have a positive influence on children.
Carefully read the following six sources, including the introductory information for each source. Then synthesize material from at least three of the sources and incorporate it into a coherent, well-written essay that develops a position on the ethics of marketing goods and services to children.
Your argument should be the focus of your essay. Use the sources to develop your argument and explain the reasoning for it. Avoid merely summarizing the sources. Indicate clearly which sources you are drawing from, whether through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. You may cite the sources as Source A, Source B, etc., or by using the descriptions in parentheses.
Source A (graph)
Source B (Benady)
Source C (Beder)
Source D (cartoon)
Source E (FTC)
Source F (Brooks-Gunn and Donahue)