Questions 1-15. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers.
(The passage below is excerpted from an essay published in the early twentieth century.)
Every child has to learn the language he is born to. It is certain that he will make mistakes in the process, especially as he is not taught it by any wise system, hat usage he can grasp from day to day. Now, if an adult foreigner were learning our language, and we greeted his efforts with yells of laughter, we should think ourselves grossly rude. And what should we think of ourselves if we further misled him by setting absurd words and phrases before him, encouraging him to further blunders, that we might laugh the more; and then, if we had visitors, inciting him to make these blunders over again to entertain the company? Yet this is common household sport, so long as there is a little child to act as zany* for the amusement of his elders. The errors of a child are not legitimate grounds of humour, even to those coarse enough to laugh at them, any more than a toddling baby’s falls have the same elements of the incongruous as the overthrow of a stout old gentleman who sits down astonished in the snow.
A baby has to fall. It is natural, and not funny. So does the young child have to make mistakes as he learns any or all of the crowding tasks before him; but these are not fair grounds for ridicule.
I was walking in a friend’s garden, and met for the first time the daughter of the house, a tall, beautiful girl of nineteen or twenty. Her aunt, who was with me, cried out to her in an affected tone, “Come and meet the lady, Janey!”
The young girl, who was evidently unpleasantly impressed, looked annoyed, and turned aside in some confusion, speaking softly to her teacher who was with her. Then the aunt, who was a very muscular woman, seized the young lady by her shoulders, lifted her off the ground, and thrust her blushing, struggling, and protesting into my arms—by way of introduction! Naturally enough, the girl was overcome with mortification, and conceived a violent dislike for me. (This story is exactly true, except that the daughter of the house was aged two and a half.)
Now why,—in the name of reason, courtesy, education, justice, any lofty and noble consideration, —why should Two-and-a-half be thus insulted? What is the point of view of the insulter? How does she justify her brutal behaviour? Is it on the obvious ground of physical superiority in age and strength? It cannot be that, for we do not gratuitously outrage the feelings of all persons younger and smaller than ourselves. A stalwart six-foot septuagenarian does not thus comport himself toward a small gentleman of thirty or forty. It cannot be relationship; for such conduct does not obtain among adults, be they never so closely allied. It has no basis except that the victim is a child, and the child has no personal rights which we feel bound to respect.
A baby, when “good,” is considered as a first-rate plaything,—a toy to play with or to play on or to set going like a machine-top, that we may laugh at it. There is a legitimate frolicking with small children, as the cat plays with her kittens; but that is not in the least inconsistent with respect. Grown people can play together and laugh together without jeering at each other. So we might laugh with our children, even more than we do, and yet never laugh at them. The pathetic side of it is that children are even more sensitive to ridicule than grown people. They have no philosophy to fall back upon; and,—here is the hideously unjust side,—if they lose their tempers, being yet unlearned in self-restraint,—if they try to turn the tables on their tormentors, then the wise “grown-up” promptly punishes them for “disrespect.” They must respect their elders even in this pitiful attitude; but who is to demand the respect due to youth?
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) detail a solution to a problem
(B) critique a common practice
(C) point out a discrepancy in a theory
(D) describe the origin of a movement
(E) justify a widely held belief
2. One contrast presented in the first paragraph (lines 1-5) is between
(A) talkative and uncommunicative children
(B) graceful and clumsy movement
(C) formal and informal learning
(D) substantive and superficial mistakes
(E) mandatory and optional instruction
3. In the course of the second paragraph (lines 6-21), the focus of the argument shifts from
(A) foreigners’ language acquisition to foreigners’ adoption of local customs
(B) adults’ view of children to children’s view of themselves
(C) older children’s learning to infants’ learning
(D) children’s independent learning to adults’ instruction of children
(E) adults’ language acquisition to children’s learning in general
In the United States, kindergarten has generally been considered an educational setting that provides opportunities for children to ready themselves for the academic and social worlds of formal education. However, the twenty-first-century drive toward increased academic standards has been felt even in the earliest grades, leading some researchers to express concern that the kindergarten experience is being compromised.
Carefully read the following six sources, including the introductory information for each source, and consider the implications of transforming kindergarten into a more academic environment than it has been in the past. Then synthesize material from at least three of the sources and incorporate it into a coherent, well-written argument in which you take a position on what kindergarten should be.
Your argument should be the focus of your essay. Use the sources to develop your argument and explain the reasoning for it. Avoid merely summarizing the sources. Indicate clearly which sources you are drawing from, whether through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. You may cite the sources as Source A, Source B, etc., or by using the descriptions in parentheses.
Source A (Svensen)
Source B (Breen)
Source C (Rioual)
Source D (chart)
Source E (Curwood)
Source F (photo)