1. Which developmental milestone must be reached before an infant experiences separation anxiety?
(B) Theory of mind
(E) Object permanence
2. Darien’s father dictated who Darien’s friends should be and what classes he should take, and he set an extremely early curfew. If Darien went against his father’s wishes, the repercussions were harsh and swift. What type of parenting did Darien experience?
3. In Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford prison experiment, young men were assigned roles as either guards or prisoners. The results showed that
(A) leadership styles can differentially influence behavior
(B) groupthink can be dangerous
(C) groups that are hostile toward each other may be united by a common goal
(D) situations can exert powerful effects on morality and identity
(E) socialization can have an impact on bystander apathy
4. Which of the following explanations most clearly demonstrates an internal attribution for the reason a student fell asleep in class?
(A) The student does not care about the class.
(B) The class is boring.
(C) The class was scheduled too early in the morning.
(D) The warm temperature of the room put the student to sleep.
(E) The student’s roommates are too noisy at night.
5. A researcher interested in finding a simple way to estimate intelligence decides to evaluate skull circumference as a possible indicator of intelligence. He finds that the size of an adult’s skull remains the same from one measurement to the next, but he finds that skull circumference is not a very good predictor of intelligence. In this example, skull circumference as a measure of intelligence is
(A) reliable and valid
(B) reliable but not valid
(C) valid but not reliable
(D) neither reliable nor valid
(E) highly correlated with intelligence test scores
6. Standard deviation is a measure of how much
(A) a normal person’s behavior changes in a given time
(B) two sets of scores vary together
(C) difference there is between the highest and the lowest score in a sample
(D) scores in a group differ from the mean of that group
(E) scores from a sample differ from that of the population
7. Cognitive psychologists are most likely to study
(A) the acquisition of knowledge, planning, and problem solving
(B) how infants move from basic trust to autonomy
(C) the conflicts of the conscious and the unconscious
(D) the relationship of cephalocaudal and proximodistal development
(E) how attribution processes vary across cultures
1. Spencer is five years old and loves taking guitar lessons. Spencer’s father is proud of him and plans to encourage his efforts by giving him money for every new song he learns to play, even if he plays out of tune.
A. Explain how each of the following would enhance or detract from Spencer’s experience as he learns to play the guitar.
B. When Spencer is eighteen years old and considering a career as a musician, how might each of the following contribute to Spencer’s decision either to immediately pursue a musical career or to seek admission to music school?
2. Researchers are interested in investigating Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. They want to measure the reasoning ability of five-year-old preoperational children, ten-year-old concrete operational children, and fifteen-year-old formal operational adolescents. The researchers have not yet decided on the design for the study.