1. Which of the following is used to reduce the effects of confounding variables in experiments?
(A) Descriptive statistics
(B) Inferential statistics
(D) An algorithm
(E) Random assignment
2. Thomas gained a lot of weight because he was eating too many sweets. A psychologist suggested to Thomas that he pair the pleasant taste of sweets with the taste of something he finds unpleasant.So, Thomas put broccoli, which he hates, in his ice cream, cake, and pie. He now feels nauseated at the sight of dessert and avoids eating it. This technique is known as
(B) a token economy
(C) client-centered therapy
(D) systematic desensitization
(E) aversion therapy
3. Which of the following is reduced during a fight-or-flight reaction?
(A) Adrenaline level
(B) Glucose level
(C) Respiration rate
(D) Heart rate
4. Ana injured her eye in an accident and has to wear a patch over the eye while it heals. Which of the following cues would she best be able to use to make judgments about the distance objects are from her?
(B) Binocular disparity
(C) Linear perspective
5. During therapy sessions, Gerry’s therapist often rephrases things that Gerry has said or asks for clarification. This action is consistent with what aspect of client-centered therapy?
(B) Unconditional positive regard
(D) Active listening
6. A psychologist gives the same test to a class of students at the beginning of the day and again at the end of the school day. The extent to which test scores are similar across the two administrations demonstrates which of the following test properties?
(D) Statistical significance
7. An animal will gain weight when
(A) it establishes homeostasis
(B) its ventromedial hypothalamus is damaged
(C) it reaches its set point
(D) its basal metabolism rate increases
(E) releasing factors are present
Question 1 is reprinted for your convenience.
1. Researchers investigated whether introducing a good-luck-related superstition would improve the performance of participants attempting to hit a golf ball into a hole (Damisch, Stoberock, & Mussweiler, 2010). Participants in the study were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Those in the first group were told, “Here is your ball. So far it has turned out to be a lucky ball.” Those in the second group were told, “This is the ball everyone has used so far.” Participants then made ten attempts to hit the ball into the hole. The researchers measured the number of successful attempts, and they found that the mean difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The researchers theorized that the superstitious beliefs produced higher levels of self-efficacy, which led to improved performance.
Many people engage in superstitious behavior, such as wearing lucky socks, in the belief that the superstitious behavior will lead to improved performance. Explain how each of the following may lead to the development or maintenance of superstitious beliefs or behaviors.
2. Part A
The vast majority of students in a prestigious engineering program are men. Some professors in the program hope to recruit and admit more women. How might each of the following hinder their decision-making process to accept more women?
The program has an entrance exam that has been used for many years, but now the professors are considering eliminating it. How might each of the following affect the decision to eliminate the exam?
The professors decide to start a summer internship for female high school students, which they hope will promote interest in their engineering program. How might each of the following be used in the internship to help recruit more female students?